A series of economic measures introduced by Lenin from 1918 in an attempt to move from State Capitalism as a result of the desperate situation caused by the Civil War. It was composed of:
1. Grain Requisitioning: Peasants were forced to give a percentage of their grain harvest. Met with serious resistance from the peasants. Resulted in wide spread famine across Russia. Historians estimate approximately 9.5 million deaths. Requisition squads were placed in charge of forcing peasants to ‘give’ grain. Met with armed resistance, however common opposition was shown with destroying harvest or cultivating less land (40%).
2. Nationalisation of Industry: Government took control of all industry. Workers and Owners lost control of factories. Industrial output and employment (50%) slumped.
3. Abolishment of Monetary Economy: Bolsheviks hyper-inflated the economy by printing currency until the rouble was worthless, in an attempt to achieve social equality and encourage exchange of goods through the government. Instead, trading through the black market increased.
4. Militarisation of the Workplace and Repression of Workers: In an attempt to control labour, power was stripped from workers. The government now controlled working hours, day-to-day conditions and type of work undertaken. Workers were sent to where they were needed (labour armies); those disobedient were faced with imprisonment and deduction of food rations. Communist Sunday were encouraged where people would ‘volunteer’ to work on Sundays – they were not renumerated for this.
5. State Services: Postal Service, Medical Treatment, Pension, Public Housing and Public Transport established. The government also controlled the movement of food through the rationing system.
The Red Terror was a campaign of intimidation, arrests, violence and executions, conducted by the Cheka and the Red Army across Russia during the Civil War. Historians debate as to whether the campaign a deliberately planned attempt to rid Russia of 'counter-revolutionaries' or whether it was a series of responses to Anti-Bolshevik sentiment.
The campaign was launched after the planned assassination on Lenin. Political opponents were initial targets, but the terror quickly spread to all opponents of the Bolsheviks. Historians estimate that somewhere between 100,000 - 500,000 opponents were murdered by the Cheka and Red Army throughout this period.
The fear that was instilled by the Red Terror did suppress counter-revolutionary sentiment. Torture techniques ensured cooperation.
It is also important to note that White Terror also existed throughout the duration of the Civil War.